brief history of scotland
Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The name Caledonia has often been applied to Scotland, especially in poetry. Eilean Donan Castle, located in the Scottish Highlands. Scots have also played a vital role in many of the world’s most important scientific and technological innovations, with inventors, engineers, and entrepreneurs such as Alexander Graham Bell, James Watt, Andrew Carnegie, and John McAdam extending Scotland’s reach far beyond the small country’s borders.

The west coast is fringed by deep indentations (sea lochs or fjords) and by numerous islands, varying in size from mere rocks to the large landmasses of Lewis and Harris, Skye, and Mull. A SHORT HISTORY OF SCOTLAND. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Traditionally, Scottish written history begins with the arrival of the Romans in the first century AD, although for thousands of years tribes had roamed the land, forging a simple life in stone huts and gathering food from the abundant crop that, even today, still provides the nation with a plentiful source of nourishment. Hardworking, practical, and proud of their traditions, the Scots have a reputation for thrift that verges on miserliness. At its greatest length, measured from Cape Wrath to the Mull of Galloway, the mainland of Scotland extends 274 miles (441 km), while the maximum breadth—measured from Applecross, in the western Highlands, to Buchan Ness, in the eastern Grampian Mountains—is 154 miles (248 km). It is derived from Caledonii, the Roman name of a tribe in the northern part of what is now Scotland.

Relive the past and witness the wondrous monuments that today proudly tell their stories. An ancient Gaelic song, a blessing on cattle and the people who keep them, speaks to that hospitality in a sometimes inhospitable landscape: The friendship of God the Son to bring you home.

Scotland, most northerly of the four parts of the United Kingdom, occupying about one-third of the island of Great Britain. Scotland is bounded by England to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and north, and the North Sea to the east.

The earliest people, Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) hunters and fishermen who probably reached Scotland via an ancient land bridge from the Continent, were.

In Scotland: History. Time-lapse video of the isle of Skye, Scotland.

The name Caledonia has often been applied to Scotland, especially in poetry. The island clusters of Orkney and Shetland lie to the north.

Although profoundly influenced by the English, Scotland has long refused to consider itself as anything other than a separate country, and it has bound itself to historical fact and legend alike in an effort to retain national identity, as well as to the distinct dialect of English called Scots; writing defiantly of his country’s status, the nationalist poet Hugh MacDiarmid proclaimed: “For we ha’e faith in Scotland’s hidden poo’ers, The present’s theirs, but a’ the past and future’s oors.” That independent spirit bore fruit in 1996, when the highly symbolic Stone of Scone was returned to Edinburgh, Scotland’s capital, from London, and in 1999 a new Scottish Parliament—the first since 1707—was elected and given significant powers over Scottish affairs. Act of Union. National Geographic Kids - Fabulous facts about Scotland!


Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? But, because of the deep penetration of the sea in the sea lochs and firths (estuaries), most places are within 40 to 50 miles (65 to 80 km) of the sea, and only 30 miles (50 km) of land separate the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth, the two great estuarine inlets on the west and east coasts, respectively.

A history full of battles and violence. Author of. It is derived from Caledonii, the Roman name of a tribe in the northern part of what is now Scotland. We don´t like violence and hope for a better, united world, with all possible room for individualism, groups, cultures, religions, as long as they respect each other and are willing to work together when that is better for mankind. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

The ruins of St. Andrews Castle, Scotland. Updates? Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Other significant principal cities include Glasgow, Dundee, Aberdeen, and Perth, all centres for industry, transportation, and commerce.

However, when the ice melted forests spread across Scotland and stone age hunters moved there. Scotland in the 16th and early 17th centuries, James IV (1488–1513) and James V (1513–42), Mary (1542–67) and the Scottish Reformation, North Sea oil and the rise of Scottish nationalism, The establishment of a Scottish Parliament, https://www.britannica.com/place/Scotland, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame - Biography of Leo Fender, Official Site of Scotland, United Kingdom, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Baldassare Castiglione.

Ancient Scotland. By Tim Lambert.

The name Scotland derives from the Latin Scotia, land of the Scots, a Celtic people from Ireland who settled on the west coast of Great Britain about the 5th century CE. Few students of English-language literature are unacquainted with historian Thomas Carlyle, poet Robert Burns, and novelist Muriel Spark. Edinburgh is a handsome city of great historical significance and one of Europe’s chief cultural centres. The name Scotland derives from the Latin Scotia, land of the Scots, a Celtic people from Ireland who settled on the west coast of Great Britain about the 5th century CE. A BRIEF HISTORY OF SCOTLAND. Omissions?

Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). CRW Flags - Flag of Scotland, United Kingdom, Scotland - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Scotland - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). During the ice age Scotland was uninhabited. By 6,000 BC small groups of people lived in Scotland by hunting animals like red deer and seals and by gathering plants for food. An austere land, subject to extremes of weather, Scotland has proved a difficult home for countless generations of its people, who have nonetheless prized it for its beauty and unique culture.

Evidence of human settlement in the area later known as Scotland dates from the 3rd millennium bcE. Scotland’s relations with England, with which it was merged in 1707 to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain, have long been difficult. Read More. Neolithic Age The earliest prehistoric tools found still surviving in Scotland date from 3000 BC – during the Neolithic age Scotland was home to nomadic hunter-gatherers as well as the first farmers who built permanent dwellings. Scotland has been a united kingdom for centuries and has its own history. “I am a Scotsman,” the poet and novelist Sir Walter Scott wrote in the 19th century; “therefore I had to fight my way into the world.” Historically one of Europe’s poorest countries, Scotland has contributed much to political and practical theories of progress: forged in the Scottish Enlightenment in the hands of such philosophers as Francis Hutcheson, Adam Smith, and David Hume, who viewed humankind as a product of history and the “pursuit of happiness” as an inalienable right, this progressive ideal contributed substantially to the development of modern democracy. The remains of domestic and ritual buildings from this time make up The Heart o… Senior Lecturer, Department of Scottish History, University of Edinburgh, Scotland. The list could go on as the history of Scotland stretches back thousands of years. Travelers to the country, however, often remark on the generosity and friendliness of their hosts, as well as on the vibrancy of contemporary Scottish culture.

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