the second peloponnesian war
Meanwhile in Sparta, Alcibiades recommended that in their renewed war the Spartans set up a permanent garrison in Athenian territory at Decelea, and they followed his advice. Athens sent 200 ships on the expedition […] Corcyra to demand the withdraw of the Athenian ships. official agreement between groups of people. The conflict ended suddenly in 405. gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). The hostages gave the Athenians a bargaining chip. He avoided the trial by fleeing to Sparta. Archimedes II lay siege to the city of Plataea, and the Athenians were Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. The Spartans summoned forces from all of their allies, including Athens, to help them suppress the revolt. Despite their victory, these failures caused outrage in Athens and led to a controversial trial. The most substantial classical Greek war was recorded by the historian Thucydides, who analyzed the downfall of his native Athens at the hands of Sparta and its Peloponnesian League, which were ultimately supported by limitless Persian money. Sparta and its allies, with the exception of Corinth, were almost exclusively land-based powers, able to summon large land armies which were very nearly unbeatable (thanks to the legendary Spartan forces). The execution of the generals, one of whom was the son of the great general Pericles, had disastrous consequences for Athens’s military prospects, which were already precarious after the retirement of Alcibiades. Following this, Athens instructed Potidaea in the peninsula of Chalkidiki, a tributary ally of Athens but a colony of Corinth, to tear down its walls, send hostages to Athens, dismiss the Corinthian magistrates from office, and refuse the magistrates that the city would send in the future. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing of the Peace of Nicias. Loss of Support . Recognizing the opportunity for an If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. His attempt to capture Amphipolis was a disaster as he died in the battle. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see, For the book by the Greek historian Thucydides, see, Achaemenid support for Sparta (414–404 BC). The Lacedaemonians, with their neighbors the Tegeans, faced the combined armies of Argos, Athens, Mantinea, and Arcadia. The Athenians assisted the Corcyraeans in defeating the Corinthian fleet, which allowed the island to sever its ties to its mother city. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact for more information and to obtain a license. In 404 B.C. Persia, on the other hand, had everything to gain from the war. As prominent historian J. Shattering religious and cultural taboos, devastating vast swathes of countryside, and destroying whole cities, the Peloponnesian War marked the dramatic end to the fifth century BC and the golden age of Greece.[6]. This eventually drew Sparta into the conflict. Civilians became much more involved in the Peloponnesian war and entire citizen bodies could be wiped out as happened at in Boeotia and Mykalessos. Alcibiades was welcomed home a hero in 407, but his popularity with Athens’s fickle democracy did not last long. The first couple of years went poorly for Athens as Sparta began the campaign by causing as much destruction to Athenian land as possible. Hoplites: The Foot Soldiers of Ancient Athens. ", LibriVox: The History of the Peloponnesian War,, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 October 2020, at 20:19. Pericles, who was both Athens’s leading politician and its most authoritative general, was quite happy to let Athenians enjoy the wealth and dominance they already had. The Athenian army, attempting to withdraw overland to other, more friendly Sicilian cities, was divided and defeated; the entire Athenian fleet was destroyed, and virtually the entire Athenian army was sold off into slavery. [15], The Thirty Years' Peace was first tested in 440 BC, when Athens's powerful ally Samos rebelled from its alliance with Athens. to the Second Peloponnesian War, known as the Archidamian War, which put in place. A further source of provocation was an Athenian decree, issued in 433/2 BC, imposing stringent trade sanctions on Megarian citizens (once more a Spartan ally after the conclusion of the First Peloponnesian War). Ancient Greek politics, philosophy, art and scientific achievements greatly influenced Western civilizations today. The Athenians were thoroughly defeated. A peace with Sparta might have been possible, but the Athenian fleet, now based on the island of Samos, refused to accept the change. The faction hostile to Alcibiades triumphed in Athens following a minor Spartan victory by their skillful general Lysander at the naval battle of Notium in 406 BC. 495-429 B.C.) The Spartan commander Lysander put together a fleet of 140 ships and managed to destroy 30 Athenian ships in a battle near the island of Lesbos. The conflict began in 431 BC and ended with utter defeat for Athens in 404 BC as its naval empire was destroyed. After suffering a defeat at the hands of their colony of Corcyra, a sea power that was not allied to either Sparta or Athens, Corinth began to build an allied naval force. Corinth and Thebes demanded that Athens should be destroyed and all its citizens should be enslaved. The deal agreed to restore the situation as it stood at the beginning of the war; Sparta was allowed keep Plataea and Athens held Nicaea. The conflict began in 431 BC and ended with utter defeat for Athens in 404 BC as its naval empire was destroyed. They refused an Athenian ultimatum in a debate that was dramatized by the historian Thucydides as the “Melian Dialogue.” After a siege the Athenians killed all the Melian men and sold their women and children into slavery. Sparta’s lack of naval warfare was a factor in this, as was the determination of Athens to keep fighting at all costs. With Persia promising more and more as time went by, it was prolonging the war. The two fleets met at Arginusae, near the Turkish coast, and the Athenians won a decisive victory. Anticipating a reprisal, the Plateans sought Athenian help, while the Thebans turned to Sparta. Despite Cleon’s successes, he was not able to win over everyone. was the leading statesman of Athens for an unprecedented period and brought it to the height of its political power and i…, Franklin D. Roosevelt Led militarily by a clever new general Demosthenes (not to be confused with the later Athenian orator Demosthenes), the Athenians managed some successes as they continued their naval raids on the Peloponnese. Nicias, who had made windfall profits from silver mining, took over the leadership of Athens. All they had wanted was to continue to hold their empire, and they had achieved this goal. The Ionian states that rebelled expected protection, and many rejoined the Athenian side.


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